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7.6.2 基于TCP协议的Socket通信(1) | 小熊教程

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本节引言:

上一节的概念课枯燥无味是吧,不过总有点收获是吧,本节开始我们来研究基于TCP协议的Socket 通信,先来了解下Socket的概念,以及Socket通信的模型,实现Socket的步骤,以及作为Socket服务 端与客户端的两位各做要做什么事情!好的,我们由浅入深来扣这个Socket吧!


1.什么是Socket?


2.Socket通信模型:

Socket通信实现步骤解析

Step 1:创建ServerSocket和Socket

Step 2:打开连接到的Socket的输入/输出流

Step 3:按照协议对Socket进行读/写操作

Step 4:关闭输入输出流,以及Socket

好的,我们接下来写一个简单的例子,开启服务端后,客户端点击按钮然后链接服务端, 并向服务端发送一串字符串,表示通过Socket链接上服务器~


3.Socket服务端的编写:

服务端要做的事有这些

Step 1:创建ServerSocket对象,绑定监听的端口

Step 2:调用accept()方法监听客户端的请求

Step 3:连接建立后,通过输入流读取客户端发送的请求信息

Step 4:通过输出流向客户端发送响应信息

Step 5:关闭相关资源

代码实现

直接在Eclipse下创建一个Java项目,然后把Java代码贴进去即可!

 public class SocketServer {     public static void main(String[] args) throws IOException {         //1.创建一个服务器端Socket,即ServerSocket,指定绑定的端口,并监听此端口         ServerSocket serverSocket = new ServerSocket(12345);         InetAddress address = InetAddress.getLocalHost();         String ip = address.getHostAddress();         Socket socket = null;         //2.调用accept()等待客户端连接         System.out.println("~~~服务端已就绪,等待客户端接入~,服务端ip地址: " + ip);         socket = serverSocket.accept();         //3.连接后获取输入流,读取客户端信息         InputStream is=null;         InputStreamReader isr=null;         BufferedReader br=null;         OutputStream os=null;         PrintWriter pw=null;         is = socket.getInputStream();     //获取输入流         isr = new InputStreamReader(is,"UTF-8");         br = new BufferedReader(isr);         String info = null;         while((info=br.readLine())!=null){//循环读取客户端的信息             System.out.println("客户端发送过来的信息" + info);         }         socket.shutdownInput();//关闭输入流         socket.close();     } } 

然后我们把代码run起来,控制台会打印:

好的,接下来到Android客户端了!


4.Socket客户端的编写:

客户端要做的事有这些

Step 1:创建Socket对象,指明需要链接的服务器的地址和端号

Step 2:链接建立后,通过输出流向服务器发送请求信息

Step 3:通过输出流获取服务器响应的信息

Step 4:关闭相关资源

代码实现

MainActivity.java

 public class MainActivity extends AppCompatActivity implements View.OnClickListener {      @Override     protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {         super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);         setContentView(R.layout.activity_main);         Button btn_accept = (Button) findViewById(R.id.btn_accept);         btn_accept.setOnClickListener(this);     }      @Override     public void onClick(View v) {         new Thread() {             @Override             public void run() {                 try {                     acceptServer();                 } catch (IOException e) {                     e.printStackTrace();                 }             }         }.start();     }      private void acceptServer() throws IOException {         //1.创建客户端Socket,指定服务器地址和端口         Socket socket = new Socket("172.16.2.54", 12345);         //2.获取输出流,向服务器端发送信息         OutputStream os = socket.getOutputStream();//字节输出流         PrintWriter pw = new PrintWriter(os);//将输出流包装为打印流         //获取客户端的IP地址         InetAddress address = InetAddress.getLocalHost();         String ip = address.getHostAddress();         pw.write("客户端:~" + ip + "~ 接入服务器!!");         pw.flush();         socket.shutdownOutput();//关闭输出流         socket.close();     } } 

因为Android不允许在主线程(UI线程)中做网络操作,所以这里需要我们自己 另开一个线程来连接Socket!

运行结果:

点击按钮后,服务端控制台打印:


5.增强版案例:小猪简易聊天室

只是点击个按钮,然后服务器返回一串信息,肯定是很无趣的是吧,接下来我们来 搭建一个超简单的聊天室,我们需要用到线程池,存储Socket链接的集合,我们还需要 字节写一个线程,具体的我们在代码中来体会!

实现的效果图:

先把我们的服务端跑起来:

接着把我们的程序分别跑到两台模拟器上:

接下来我们来写代码:

首先是服务端,就是将读写socket的操作放到自定义线程当中,创建ServerSocket后,循环 调用accept方法,当有新客户端接入,将socket加入集合当中,同时在线程池新建一个线程!

另外,在读取信息的方法中,对输入字符串进行判断,如果为bye字符串,将socket从集合中 移除,然后close掉!

Server.java:

 public class Server {     //定义相关的参数,端口,存储Socket连接的集合,ServerSocket对象     //以及线程池     private static final int PORT = 12345;     private List<Socket> mList = new ArrayList<Socket>();     private ServerSocket server = null;     private ExecutorService myExecutorService = null;               public static void main(String[] args) {         new Server();     }      public Server()     {         try         {             server = new ServerSocket(PORT);             //创建线程池             myExecutorService = Executors.newCachedThreadPool();             System.out.println("服务端运行中.../n");             Socket client = null;             while(true)             {                 client = server.accept();                 mList.add(client);                 myExecutorService.execute(new Service(client));             }                      }catch(Exception e){e.printStackTrace();}     }          class Service implements Runnable     {         private Socket socket;         private BufferedReader in = null;         private String msg = "";                  public Service(Socket socket) {             this.socket = socket;             try             {                 in = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(socket.getInputStream()));                  msg = "用户:" +this.socket.getInetAddress() + "~加入了聊天室"                               +"当前在线人数:" +mList.size();                   this.sendmsg();             }catch(IOException e){e.printStackTrace();}         }                                    @Override         public void run() {             try{                 while(true)                 {                     if((msg = in.readLine()) != null)                     {                         if(msg.equals("bye"))                         {                             System.out.println("~~~~~~~~~~~~~");                             mList.remove(socket);                             in.close();                             msg = "用户:" + socket.getInetAddress()                                       + "退出:" +"当前在线人数:"+mList.size();                               socket.close();                               this.sendmsg();                               break;                         }else{                             msg = socket.getInetAddress() + "   说: " + msg;                               this.sendmsg();                          }                     }                 }             }catch(Exception e){e.printStackTrace();}         }                  //为连接上服务端的每个客户端发送信息         public void sendmsg()         {             System.out.println(msg);             int num = mList.size();             for(int index = 0;index < num;index++)             {                 Socket mSocket = mList.get(index);                   PrintWriter pout = null;                   try {                       pout = new PrintWriter(new BufferedWriter(                               new OutputStreamWriter(mSocket.getOutputStream(),"UTF-8")),true);                       pout.println(msg);                   }catch (IOException e) {e.printStackTrace();}               }         }              } } 

接着到客户端,客户端的难点在于要另外开辟线程的问题,因为Android不允许直接在 主线程中做网络操作,而且不允许在主线程外的线程操作UI,这里的做法是自己新建 一个线程,以及通过Hanlder来更新UI,实际开发不建议直接这样做!!!

布局文件:activity_main.xml

 <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"     android:layout_width="match_parent"     android:layout_height="match_parent"     android:orientation="vertical" >      <TextView         android:layout_width="wrap_content"         android:layout_height="wrap_content"         android:text="小猪简易聊天室" />     <TextView         android:id="@+id/txtshow"         android:layout_width="match_parent"         android:layout_height="wrap_content"         />     <EditText         android:id="@+id/editsend"         android:layout_width="match_parent"         android:layout_height="wrap_content"         />     <Button         android:id="@+id/btnsend"         android:layout_width="match_parent"         android:layout_height="wrap_content"         android:text="发送"         /> </LinearLayout> 

MainActivity.java:

 public class MainActivity extends AppCompatActivity implements Runnable {      //定义相关变量,完成初始化     private TextView txtshow;     private EditText editsend;     private Button btnsend;     private static final String HOST = "172.16.2.54";     private static final int PORT = 12345;     private Socket socket = null;     private BufferedReader in = null;     private PrintWriter out = null;     private String content = "";     private StringBuilder sb = null;      //定义一个handler对象,用来刷新界面     public Handler handler = new Handler() {         public void handleMessage(Message msg) {             if (msg.what == 0x123) {                 sb.append(content);                 txtshow.setText(sb.toString());             }         }          ;     };       @Override     protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {         super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);         setContentView(R.layout.activity_main);         sb = new StringBuilder();         txtshow = (TextView) findViewById(R.id.txtshow);         editsend = (EditText) findViewById(R.id.editsend);         btnsend = (Button) findViewById(R.id.btnsend);          //当程序一开始运行的时候就实例化Socket对象,与服务端进行连接,获取输入输出流         //因为4.0以后不能再主线程中进行网络操作,所以需要另外开辟一个线程         new Thread() {              public void run() {                 try {                     socket = new Socket(HOST, PORT);                     in = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(socket.getInputStream(), "UTF-8"));                     out = new PrintWriter(new BufferedWriter(new OutputStreamWriter(                             socket.getOutputStream())), true);                 } catch (IOException e) {                     e.printStackTrace();                 }             }         }.start();          //为发送按钮设置点击事件         btnsend.setOnClickListener(new View.OnClickListener() {              @Override             public void onClick(View v) {                 String msg = editsend.getText().toString();                 if (socket.isConnected()) {                     if (!socket.isOutputShutdown()) {                         out.println(msg);                     }                 }             }         });         new Thread(MainActivity.this).start();     }      //重写run方法,在该方法中输入流的读取     @Override     public void run() {         try {             while (true) {                 if (socket.isConnected()) {                     if (!socket.isInputShutdown()) {                         if ((content = in.readLine()) != null) {                             content += "/n";                             handler.sendEmptyMessage(0x123);                         }                     }                 }             }         } catch (Exception e) {             e.printStackTrace();         }     } } 

本节小结:

好的,本节给大家讲解了基于TCP的Socket通信,文中介绍了Socket通信的模型,实现了 一个简单的Socket通信例子,以及写了一个增强版的实例:小猪聊天室,相信会对刚涉及 Socket编程的你带来便利~,谢谢~

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